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CSS

Styling HTML with CSS

SS stands for Cascading Style Sheets
Styling can be added to HTML elements in 3 ways:
Inline - using a style attribute in HTML elements
Internal - using a <style> element in the HTML <heade>section
External - using one or more external CSS files
The most common way to add styling, is to keep the styles in separate CSS files. But, in this tutorial, we use internal styling, because it is easier to demonstrate, and easier for you to try it yourself. 

CSS Syntax

element { property:value; property:value }
The element is an HTML element name. The property is a CSS property. The value is a CSS value.
Multiple styles are separated with semicolon.

Inline Styling (Inline CSS)

Inline styling is useful for applying a unique style to a single HTML element: Inline styling uses the style attribute. This inline styling changes the text color of a single heading:

Example

<h1 style="color:blue">This is a Blue Heading</h1>

Internal Styling (Internal CSS)

An internal style sheet can be used to define a common style for all HTML elements on a page. Internal styling is defined in the <head> section of an HTML page, using a <style> element:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
body {background-color:lightgrey}
h1 {color:blue}
p {color:green}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

External Styling (External CSS)

External style sheet are ideal when the style is applied to many pages. With external style sheets, you can change the look of an entire web site by changing one file. External styles are defined in an external CSS file, and then linked to in the <head> section of an HTML page:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="styles.css">
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

CSS Fonts

The CSS color property defines the text color to be used for the HTML element.
The CSS font-family property defines the font to be used for the HTML element.
The CSS font-size property defines the text size to be used for the HTML element. 

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
h1 {
color:blue;
font-family:verdana;
font-size:300%;
}
p {
color:red;
font-family:courier;
font-size:160%;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

The CSS Box Model

very HTML element has a box around it, even if you cannot see it.
The CSS border property defines a visible border around an HTML element: 

Example

p {
border:1px solid black;
}
The CSS padding property defines a padding (space) inside the border:

Example

p {
border:1px solid black;
padding:10px;
}
The CSS margin property defines a margin (space) outside the border::

Example

p {
border:1px solid black;
padding:10px;
margin:30px;
}

The id Attribute

All the examples above use CSS to style HTML elements in a general way.
To define a special style for one special element, first add an id attribute to the element: 

Example

<p id="p01">I am different</p>
then define a different style for the (identified) element:

Example

p#p01 {
color:blue;
}

The class Attribute

To define a style for a special type (class) of elements, add a class attribute to the element:>

Example

<p class="error">I am different</p>
Now you can define a different style for all elements with the specified class:

Example

p.error {
color:red;
}
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